The Field of Constitutional Law

Constitutional law is one of the most important areas for legal study. It is a complex field that involves balancing competing interests and interpreting the text of the Constitution in light of legal precedent, the framers’ intent, and social trends.


A constitutional lawyer can find employment with private firms or federal agencies. They may specialize in specific areas of the law, or choose to work on a wide range of cases.

The Framers’ Purpose

The Framers sought a constitutionally sound national government to represent the People and balance power among the States. To this end, they created a Constitution with liberally-granted powers and strict limitations on those powe 형사전문변호사 rs.

One of the key restrictions is known as Vesting Clause, which limits the power of Congress by requiring that legislation be approved by two differently-constituted chambers. The framers feared that a single, powerful national legislature might use its power to oppress We the People or their constituents. They hoped to mitigate this danger by placing limits on the size of the House of Representatives and providing for the election of United States Senators by state legislatures rather than by popular vote until the Seventeenth Amendment was enacted in 1913.

The Framers also sought to ensure the sovereignty of the states by requiring that all states give “full faith and credit” to each other’s laws, records, contracts and judicial proceedings, and by prohibiting the States from discriminating against citizens of other States. In a series of landmark decisions, the Supreme Court has faithfully interpreted and applied this understanding of the Constitution’s original meaning. Its decisions have ended de jure racial segregation, recognized the principle of “one person, one vote,” prohibited government suppression of political dissent, and established an effective right to counsel for defendants in criminal cases.

The First Ten Amendments 형사전문변호사

The Constitution contains ten amendments – the Bill of Rights – that protect people’s basic rights and freedoms. These include civil liberties (such as the right to a trial by jury and protection from unreasonable police action) and human rights, which are the natural, inherent rights of all people regardless of where they live. Constitutional law also focuses on legislative procedures, including how laws are made and how they are enforced.

The First Amendment enshrines the principle of free speech. This includes the right to public assemblies, protests and even petitioning government for redress. However, this right is not unlimited. Oliver Wendell Holmes, a Supreme Court justice, explained that “the most stringent protection of freedom of speech would not protect a man who falsely shouted fire in a theatre and caused a panic.”

This article lays out the relationship between the various States, and requires that States must give full faith and credit to the laws, records, contracts and judicial proceedings of other States. It also bars States from discriminating against citizens of other States in any way, and prohibits States from imposing tariffs on one another. Finally, it obligates States to extradite individuals charged with crimes committed in other States.

This article outlines the primary branches of government, and that no single branch can enlarge its own powers without the consent of Congress. It also guarantees that the Constitution and federal laws take precedence over State laws.

The Separation of Powers

A major principle of constitutional law is separation of powers, or checks and balances. This is the practice of dividing government responsibilities among three primary branches of the federal government: legislative, executive and judicial. This helps limit the risk of power being concentrated in a single branch or individual, which could lead to autocracy.

The Framers further divided government responsibilities between the national government and the states in a system called federalism. Constitutional lawyers focus on interpreting the structure and limitations of this system, as well as how the national and state governments interact with each other.

Throughout history, different theories have emerged on how to interpret the Constitution. For example, some advocates of “originalism” argue that the text must be read literally. Others, known as purposivists, seek to discern the Framers’ intent by analyzing historical documents and precedents. Still, others contend that the Constitution must be a living document, adaptable to changing social conditions and evolving interpretations of justice or the laws.

The Constitution is a powerful document with many key clauses and principles that constitutional lawyers must understand. In particular, a constitutional lawyer must understand the Supreme Court’s power of judicial review, which allows the Supreme Court to declare that actions of governmental bodies are unconstitutional and thus prevent them from being enforced.

The Preamble

The Preamble to the Constitution states that this document is “the collective enactment of the People of the United States.” This wording is significant, as it indicates that the Constitution was not just an individual piece of legislation passed by one body, but rather a document that all citizens were a part of.

It also states that the people have the right to amend or change this document if they choose. This concept of democratic legitimacy is fundamental to our form of government.

Section 2. The President shall give to the Congress Information of the State of the Union, and recommend such Measures as he may think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers and Consuls, and shall commission all the Officers of the United States. He may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both Houses of the Congress, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, he shall adjourn them to such Time as he may think proper.

The judicial branch of our government interprets and applies the Constitution to current events, such as laws passed by Congress or executive orders issued by the President. The Supreme Court has the final say on whether a law or executive order is constitutional, and this is known as judicial review. This is important, as it ensures that the Constitution remains supreme law in our country.